Quantum computer is a type of computer which uses quantum mechanics to perform computations. Classical computers process data in the form of 0 and 1. But in the case of quantum computers, the 0 and 1 form is extended. It can store and process data in qubits. Qubits can process data in 01 or 10 form i.e. it stores information in both true and false at the same time. One qubit is equal to two bits.
Qubit is the smallest storage unit like in classical computers the smallest storage unit is bits. Qubits values are calculated by using OR, AND and NOT gates. Some works that are done in quantum computing are by the following people:-
Paul Benioff in 1980
Richard Feynman in the 1980s
Yuri Manin in the 1980s
Perter Shor in 1994
Price of a quantum computer
The price of quantum computers ranges from $10,000 to $10 billion.
Companies who use quantum computing are:-
Companies who are developing quantum computers include:-
D-Wave system corporation
Cambridge quantum computing limited
Lockheed martin corporation
Anyon Systems inc.
Some pros and cons of quantum computers are explained below:-
Advantages of quantum computers
These type of computers can perform computation at a much faster rate than normal computers. Quantum computers have computation power higher than supercomputers also. They can process data at 1000 times faster than normal computers and supercomputers. Some calculations if performed by a normal computer can take 1000 years is done by quantum computers in a few seconds.
Best for simulation:-
Quantum computers are best for doing data simulation computing. There are many algorithms created that can simulate various things like weather forecasting, chemical simulation etc.
These type of computers can work better in the medical field. They can detect diseases and can create a formula for medicines. Different type of diseases can be diagnosed and tested in scientific laboratories using these computers.
Quantum computers are used by Google to refine searches. Now every search on Google can speed up by using these computers. Most relevant results can be populated using quantum computing.
These computers can make high encryption and is good at cryptography. It is impossible to break the security of quantum computers. Recently China has launched a satellite that uses quantum computing and china claimed that this satellite cannot be hacked.
Used in radar making:-
Quantum computing is also used in making radar missiles. The accuracy of radar weapons can be improved by using this technology.
Used in artificial intelligence:-
These type of computers perform well in artificial intelligence. They can make decisions more precisely than normal computers. Scientists can do better research using these computers.
Quantum computing is applied nicely by using machine learning techniques. Users can use less code and uses machine learning process for improving outcome.
Disadvantages of quantum computers
For every type of computation, it needs to write a new algorithm. Quantum computers cannot work as classical computers, they need special algorithms to perform tasks in their environment.
The low temperature needed:-
As the processing in these computers is done very deeply so it needs a temperature of negative 460 degrees F. This is the lowest temperature of the universe and it is very difficult to maintain that temperature.
Not open for public:-
Due to the high range price they are not available for public use. Also, the errors in these type of computers are high because they are still in the development phase. Quantum computers work fine in 10 qubits but after increasing qubits like 70 qubits, the accuracy is not right. There are experiments already going on to make the results of these computers precise.
It is assumed by the scientists that if a quantum computer is implemented in the best way then whole internet security breaks. This is due to the facts that these computers can decrypt all the codes on the internet.